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The dispute with Chile was taken to the International Court of Justice. The court ruled in support of the Chilean position, and declared that although Chile may have held talks about a Bolivian corridor to the sea, the country was not required to actually negotiate one or to surrender its territory. The legal age for voluntary admissions is 18; however, when numbers are small the government in the past has recruited people as young as The Bolivian army has around 31, men.
There are six military regions regiones militares —RMs in the army. The army is organized into ten divisions. Although it is landlocked Bolivia keeps a navy. According to what is established by the Bolivian Political Constitution, the Law of Autonomies and Decentralization regulates the procedure for the elaboration of Statutes of Autonomy, the transfer and distribution of direct competences between the central government and the autonomous entities. There are four levels of decentralization: Departmental government, constituted by the Departmental Assembly , with rights over the legislation of the department.
The governor is chosen by universal suffrage. Municipal government, constituted by a Municipal Council , with rights over the legislation of the municipality. The mayor is chosen by universal suffrage. Regional government, formed by several provinces or municipalities of geographical continuity within a department. It is constituted by a Regional Assembly. Original indigenous government, self-governance of original indigenous people on the ancient territories where they live. Despite a series of mostly political setbacks, between and the Morales administration has spurred growth higher than at any point in the preceding 30 years.
The growth was accompanied by a moderate decrease in inequality. A major blow to the Bolivian economy came with a drastic fall in the price of tin during the early s, which impacted one of Bolivia's main sources of income and one of its major mining industries. A major reform of the customs service has significantly improved transparency in this area. Parallel legislative reforms have locked into place market-liberal policies, especially in the hydrocarbon and telecommunication sectors, that have encouraged private investment.
Foreign investors are accorded national treatment. In April , Hugo Banzer, the former president of Bolivia, signed a contract with Aguas del Tunari, a private consortium, to operate and improve the water supply in Bolivia's third-largest city, Cochabamba. Shortly thereafter, the company tripled the water rates in that city, an action which resulted in protests and rioting among those who could no longer afford clean water. Bolivia has the second largest natural gas reserves in South America.
The government held a binding referendum in on the Hydrocarbon Law. However, to mine for it would involve disturbing the country's salt flats called Salar de Uyuni , an important natural feature which boosts tourism in the region. The government does not want to destroy this unique natural landscape to meet the rising world demand for lithium. It is thought that due to the importance of lithium for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewables in the electricity mix, Bolivia could be strengthened geopolitically.
However, this perspective has also been criticized for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production in other parts of the world. Once Bolivia's government depended heavily on foreign assistance to finance development projects and to pay the public staff. Most payments to other governments have been rescheduled on several occasions since through the Paris Club mechanism.
External creditors have been willing to do this because the Bolivian government has generally achieved the monetary and fiscal targets set by IMF programs since , though economic crises have undercut Bolivia's normally good record. However, by the foreign assistance is just a fraction of the government budget thanks to tax collection mainly from the profitable exports to Brazil and Argentina of natural gas.
The amount in reserve currencies and gold held by Bolivia's Central Bank advanced from 1. The income from tourism has become increasingly important. Bolivia's tourist industry has placed an emphasis on attracting ethnic diversity. Tourism in Bolivia has varied attractions, due to its diverse culture, geographical regions, rich history and gastronomy. The fall from the narrow 12 feet 3.
In , an Israeli woman was killed by a falling rock while cycling on the road. The Apolo road goes deep into La Paz. Roads in this area were originally built to allow access to mines located near Charazani. Other noteworthy roads run to Coroico , Sorata , the Zongo Valley Illimani mountain , and along the Cochabamba highway carretera.
TAM a. TAB, a charter heavy cargo airline, links Bolivia with most countries of the Western Hemisphere ; its inventory includes a fleet of Hercules C aircraft. Bolivias's drinking water and sanitation coverage has greatly improved since due to a considerable increase in sectoral investment. However, the country has the continent's lowest coverage levels and services are of low quality. Political and institutional instability have contributed to the weakening of the sector's institutions at the national and local levels.
The country's second largest city, Santa Cruz de la Sierra , manages its own water and sanitation system relatively successfully by way of cooperatives. The government of Evo Morales intends to strengthen citizen participation within the sector. Increasing coverage requires a substantial increase of investment financing. According to the government the main problems in the sector are low access to sanitation throughout the country; low access to water in rural areas; insufficient and ineffective investments; a low visibility of community service providers; a lack of respect of indigenous customs; "technical and institutional difficulties in the design and implementation of projects"; a lack of capacity to operate and maintain infrastructure; an institutional framework that is "not consistent with the political change in the country"; "ambiguities in the social participation schemes"; a reduction in the quantity and quality of water due to climate change; pollution and a lack of integrated water resources management; and the lack of policies and programs for the reuse of wastewater.
Coverage in urban areas is bigger than in rural ones. In the last fifty years the Bolivian population has tripled, reaching a population growth rate of 2. The growth of the population in the inter-census periods — and — was approximately 2. Some In the Andean Altiplano region the departments of La Paz and Oruro hold the largest percentage of population, in the valley region the largest percentage is held by the departments of Cochabamba and Chuquisaca , while in the Llanos region by Santa Cruz and Beni.
At national level, the population density is 8.
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The largest population center is located in the so-called "central axis" and in the Llanos region. Bolivia has a young population. The vast majority of Bolivians are mestizo with the indigenous component higher than the European one , although the government has not included cultural self-identification "mestizo" in the November census. Exact numbers vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices.
For example, the census did not provide the racial category "mestizo" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices. Most people assume their mestizo identity while at the same time identifying themselves with one or more indigenous cultures. In the Santa Cruz Department , there are several dozen colonies of German-speaking Mennonites from Russia totaling around 40, inhabitants as of [update].
Afro-Bolivians , descendants of African slaves who arrived in the time of the Spanish Empire , inhabit the department of La Paz , and are located mainly in the provinces of Nor Yungas and Sud Yungas. Slavery was abolished in Bolivia in The Indigenous peoples of Bolivia can be divided into two categories of ethnic groups: the Andeans, who are located in the Andean Altiplano and the valley region; and the lowland groups, who inhabit the warm regions of central and eastern Bolivia, including the valleys of Cochabamba Department, the Amazon Basin areas of northern La Paz Department, and the lowland departments of Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz, and Tarija including the Gran Chaco region in the southeast of the country.
Large numbers of Andean peoples have also migrated to form Quechua, Aymara, and intercultural communities in the lowlands. Bolivia has great linguistic diversity as a result of its multiculturalism. Spanish is the most spoken official language in the country, according to the census; as it is spoken by two-thirds of the population. All legal and official documents issued by the State, including the Constitution, the main private and public institutions, the media, and commercial activities, are in Spanish.
The main indigenous languages are: Quechua Plautdietsch , a German dialect , is spoken by about 70, Mennonites in Santa Cruz. Portuguese is spoken mainly in the areas close to Brazil. Bolivia is a constitutionally secular state that guarantees the freedom of religion and the independence of government from religion. Much of the indigenous population adheres to different traditional beliefs marked by inculturation or syncretisim with Christianity. The cult of Pachamama ,  or "Mother Earth", is notable. There also are important Aymaran communities near Lake Titicaca that have a strong devotion to James the Apostle.
Nevertheless, the rate of urbanization is growing steadily, at around 2. According to the census, there are total of 3,, households in Bolivia — an increase of , from Bolivian culture has been heavily influenced by the Aymara, the Quechua, as well as the popular cultures of Latin America as a whole. The cultural development is divided into three distinct periods: precolumbian, colonial, and republican.
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Important archaeological ruins, gold and silver ornaments, stone monuments, ceramics , and weavings remain from several important pre-Columbian cultures. The country abounds in other sites that are difficult to reach and have seen little archaeological exploration. The Spanish brought their own tradition of religious art which, in the hands of local native and mestizo builders and artisans , developed into a rich and distinctive style of architecture, painting, and sculpture known as "Mestizo Baroque".
An important body of Native Baroque religious music of the colonial period was recovered and has been performed internationally to wide acclaim since Bolivia has a rich folklore. Its regional folk music is distinctive and varied. The "devil dances" at the annual carnival of Oruro are one of the great folkloric events of South America, as is the lesser known carnival at Tarabuco. Bolivia has public and private universities. In , Bolivia is the first country in South America in terms of funds dedicated to public education and is the second in Latin America, after Cuba.
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Based on The World Factbook estimates, Bolivia is ranked st in life expectancy with a number of Between and , extreme poverty in Bolivia fell from The national team is the Bolivia national football team. Racquetball is the second most popular sport in Bolivia as for the results in the Odesur Games held in Cochabamba. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in South America. This article is about the South American country. For other uses, see Bolivia disambiguation. Coat of arms. Spanish and 36 indigenous languages. See below. Main article: History of Bolivia. Main article: History of Bolivia — Main article: History of Bolivia —present.
Main article: Geography of Bolivia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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Main articles: Politics of Bolivia and Foreign relations of Bolivia. Main article: Crime in Bolivia. Main article: Foreign relations of Bolivia. Main article: Economy of Bolivia. Main article: Tourism in Bolivia.
See also: List of airlines of Bolivia and List of airports in Bolivia. See also: Rail transport in Bolivia. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Bolivia. Main article: Demographics of Bolivia. Main article: Languages of Bolivia. Main article: Religion in Bolivia. Main article: Culture of Bolivia.
See also: Music of Bolivia and Public holidays in Bolivia. Main article: Education in Bolivia. Main article: Health in Bolivia. See also: Refresh Bolivia. Bolivia portal. Central Bank of Bolivia. Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 24 February The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 25 March International Monetary Fund.
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